Uranus can NOT support life.
More Info: As we currently define life, Uranus cannot support it. We have scoured the cosmos for evidence of planets, moons, and other celestial bodies possibly harboring life. Amongst these searched planets is one of our companions in the solar system–Uranus. Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun and considered a gas giant. This status plus its atmospheric composition help decide whether or not it is capable of harboring life.
Necessities of Life
First, before looking at what Uranus has to offer, you must first understand what the scientifically accepted necessities of life are. Organisms such as humans require some sort of fuel. Plants find this in sunlight, animals find it through vegetation and other animals, and some creatures can even take toxic chemicals and convert them to energy. Furthermore, the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are necessary for life. The earth, as you could imagine, has an abundance of these elements.
Uranus the Gas Giant
As a gas giant, Uranus does not have a solid crust like the Earth does. Instead, the gas only gets more and more compressed and dense as you move towards the center of the planet. However, it never becomes truly solid. You would never be able to actually stand on Uranus. These gasses wouldn’t give any sort of stability for life.
Does Uranus have the Necessities of Life?
Being a gas giant, Uranus lacks an abundance of the solid metals necessary for existence (carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur). In terms of the gasses, its atmospheric content is extremely heavy in hydrogen and helium. No currently studied life form converts energy from hydrogen and helium alone. Without these necessities, you can easily conclude that Uranus is lacking in all of the necessities of life as we know it.
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The Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune.” – Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 31(1):217. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.001245