Most Common Birthmark Types at Birth
There is a large variety of birthmarks that may be seen at birth. Birthmarks are classified into the following: hemangioma, macular stain, pigmentation type birthmark and vascular malformation.
Hemangiomas are actually capillaries and venules that can be found either on the surface or deep layers of the skin. Superficial henagiomas are red in color and are raised and firm. Meanwhile, the deep hemangiomas are blue and soft. Either type of hemangiomas can either be present upon the birth of a child, or they may develop within the first few weeks of infancy. Generally, these birthmarks disappear completely within the first few weeks of the infant's life, or they may take a few years to resolve themselves.
Another common type of birthmark that can be observed is the macular stain. Macular stains are one of the most prevalent vascular birthmarks, as they can be seen in 30-50% of newborns. They are located on either the forehead, eyelids, back, neck, tip of the nose or upper lip.
Pigmentation Type Birthmarks
While most birthmarks are pink or reddish in color, pigmentation type birthmarks are either brown, black, slate blue or gray. Birthmarks under this category are the coffee-cream or café au lait spots, Mongolian spots and moles.
Approximately 20% of newborns have café au lait spots, which subsequently shrink or disappear as the child grows older. Café au lait spots are light brown in color, while Mongolian spots are bluish. The latter are generally found on the buttocks and lower back.
Moles or nevi, are small clusters of pigmented skin cells, which are observed in almost all newborns.
Vascular malformations also appear during birth but they can also develop at practically any age in the course of adulthood. This type of birthmark does not go away over time and may even grow.